Born in 1915. Fled to Poland in 1939 as a military aviator. Arrested by Soviet soldiers and sentenced to five years in the Gulag. Released in 1941.
A port city on the banks of the White Sea in the north of Russia. The first correctional labour camps (the so-called Northern Camps) were set up in the area by the Bolshevik regime in 1919. It was later home to the main administration of the Archangelsklag camp complex.