Born in Czechoslovakia in 1922. Arrested entering the USSR in October 1940. Sentenced to three years in the Gulag in Norilsk. In 1943 released into...
City 400 km beyond the Arctic Circle. In 1935–1956 it was the centre of the Norillag (Norislk correctional labour camp). Prisoners mainly worked in the mining and metallurgical industries but also built a railway linking Norilsk with the port of Dudinka.